Wind Turbine Technology

      Angstrom-Advanced uses Wind turbine configuration with a horizontal axis, three-bladed rotor, an upwind orientation, and an active yaw system to keep the rotor oriented into the wind. The drive train consists of a low-speed shaft connecting the rotor to the gearbox, a 2- or 3-stage speed-increasing gearbox, and a high-speed shaft connecting the gearbox to the generator. Generators are typically asynchronous, induction, and operate at 550-690 V (AC). Some turbines are equipped with an additional small generator to improve production in low wind speeds. The second generator can be separate or integrated into the main generator. Each turbine for utility scale applications is equipped with a transformer to step up the voltage to the on-site collection system voltage. The on-site collection system typically is operated at medium voltages of 25 to 35 kV. Figure 1 shows the major turbine components for a wind turbine.

     Wind turbines convert wind energy to electricity for distribution. Conventional horizontal axis turbines can be divided into three components. The rotor component, which is approximately 20% of the wind turbine cost, includes the blades for converting wind energy to low speed rotational energy.

    The generator component, which is approximately 34% of the wind turbine cost, includes the electrical generator, the control electronics, and most likely a gearbox component for converting the low speed incoming rotation to high speed rotation suitable for generating electricity.

    The structural support component, which is approximately 15% of the wind turbine cost, includes the tower and rotor yaw mechanism.


    Wind turbines come in many sizes and configurations and are built from wide range of materials. In simple terms, a wind turbine consists of a rotor that has wing shaped blades attached to a hub; a nacelle that houses a drivetrain consisting of a gearbox, connecting shafts, support bearings, the generator, plus other machinery; a tower; and groundmounted electrical equipment. The wing shaped blades on the rotor actually harvest the energy in the wind stream. The rotor converts the kinetic energy in the wind to rotational energy transmitted through the drivetrain to the generator. Generated electricity can be connected directly to the load or feed to the utility grid